Sunday, 31 December 2017

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31‭ ‬December‭ ‬1961:‭ ‬Telefís Éireann was launched on this day.‭ ‬It was originally intended that the first Live broadcast would be on Christmas Eve.‭ ‬However Eamon Andrews‭ (‬of This is Your Life fame‭) who was at the time the Chairman of the Radio Éireann Authority,‭ ‬gave everybody a break over the Christmas so the initial broadcast‭ (‬on Channel‭ ‬7‭) ‬went ahead on the last night of the year.‭ ‬The station launched at‭ ‬7‭ ‬pm and President Eamon de Valera [above] was the first person to appear to officially launch the Station.‭

He gave a cautious welcome to the arrival of television in Ireland,‭ ‬and expressed the hope that the new media would provide sources of recreation and pleasure,‭ ‬but also information,‭ ‬instruction and knowledge.‭ ‬However,‭ ‬he admitted to being somewhat afraid,‭ ‬as‭ "‬Never before was there in the hands of men an instrument so powerful to influence the thoughts and actions of the multitude.‭"

He believed that the new medium,‭ ‬like Atomic power had the ability to do incalculable good or irreparable harm and that he felt it was the viewers would ultimately decide what kind of programs they got to see.‭

The President was followed by the Primate of All Ireland,‭ ‬Cardinal d'Alton,‭ ‬who also sounded a note of caution regarding how things might develop. ‭ ‬The latter part of the first night was a live concert from the Gresham Hotel in Dublin‭  ‬and featured the Chairman of the Radio Eireann Authority,‭ ‬Eamonn Andrews,‭ ‬Patrick O'Hagan,‭ ‬the Artane Boys Band and the voice of Micheal O hEithir who was the commentator on the night’s proceedings.‭

While a limited numbers of viewers had been able to pick up poor quality TV signals from the BBC and UTV up until then,‭ ‬this event marked the real birth of the Television Age in the Republic and within a few short years nearly every home had a TV set as a central part of their household.

However the rapid growth of television viewing in Ireland during the‭ ‬1960‭’‬s helped to transform the nature of society in way’s that did not always meet with everyone’s approval‭!

Saturday, 30 December 2017

30‭ ‬December‭ ‬999‭ ‬AD:‭ ‬King Brian Boru won a great Victory over the Vikings of Dublin and their allies the Leinstermen at the Battle of Gleann Máma/‭ ‬Cath Gleann Máma‭ ‬on this day.‭

In this engagement he had as an ally‭ ‬Máel Sechnaill mac Domnaill,‭ ‬the king of Meath.‭ ‬Not all accounts agree though that they were brothers in arms at this time.‭ ‬Indeed within a few years they were to clash with Brian emerging the victor.‭ ‬Years later they faced the Vikings again at Clontarf but as here the part played in that battle by the Mide king is open to question.‭ ‬Though we have the date and the year for this battle,‭ ‬30‭ ‬December‭ ‬999,‭ ‬its exact location is now lost to us.‭ ‬Some have postulated that it was in glen in the Wicklow Mountains,‭ ‬others that it was fought much nearer to the walls of Dublin.‭ ‬The inherent military probability is that the second opinion is correct.‭

Whatever the immediate impact of Glenn Máma it did embed a deep sense of bitterness within the heart of‭ ‬King Maelmorda of the Province of Laigin‭ (‬Leinster‭)‬.‭ ‬He ignominiously hid in a tree as his army broke and ran.‭ ‬It was there he was taken by no less a figure than Brian’s son Murchad who hauled the hapless Maelmorda out of the yew tree where he had hidden.‭

The Battle of Glen Máma resulted in the total defeat of the Vikings and their Leinster Irish allies.‭ ‬The Leinstermen were none too enamoured with their subordinate status to the Kings of Tara and had seen in the Vikings allies worthy of their support if they could just shake off subjection by the O’Neills and now this upstart King Brian of Cashel.‭ ‬On this occasion however their support for the rulers of Dublin paid them no dividends.‭ ‬In the follow up to this Victory Dublin was captured and King Sitric was forced out of his capital.

Brian,‭ ‬king of Caisel,‭ ‬led an army to Glenn Máma and the foreigners of Áth Cliath,‭ ‬accompanied by the Laigin,‭ ‬came to attack him.‭ ‬And they were defeated and a slaughter was inflicted on them,‭ ‬including Aralt son of Amlaíb and Cuilén son of Eitigén and other nobles of the foreigners.‭ ‬This happened on Thursday the third of the Kalends of January‭ ‬[30‭ ‬December]‭ ‬Brian afterwards entered Áth Cliath,‭ ‬and Áth Cliath was plundered by him.

Annals of Ulster U999.8

A great army was led by Mael Sechnaill son of Domnall and by Brian son of
Cendétigh to Glenn Máma and the foreigners of Áth Cliath came to attack
them,‭ ‬and the foreigners were defeated and slaughter inflicted on them,
including Aralt son of Amlaíb and Culén son of Etigén and the nobles of Áth
Cliath,‭ ‬and Mael Sechnaill and Brian went thereafter to Áth Cliath and were
a week there and carried off its gold and silver and captives,‭ ‬and expelled
the king i.e.‭ ‬Sitric son of Amlaíb.

Chronicon Scotorum

Friday, 29 December 2017

29 December 1937: The new Irish Constitution - Bunreacht na hÉireann - came into effect on this day. The titles "Executive Council" and "President of the Executive Council" (a Legacy of the Treaty of 1921 with Britain) were changed to read "Government" and "Taoiseach" respectively and the office of President came into existence.

The Constitution of Ireland is the basic law of the State. It was adopted by plebiscite in 1937. It is the successor of the Constitution of Dáil Éireann (1919) and the Constitution of the Irish Free State (1922). The Constitution states that all legislative, executive and judicial powers of Government derive from the people. It sets out the form of government and defines the powers of the President, the two Houses of the Oireachtas and the Government. It also defines the structure and powers of the courts, sets out the fundamental rights of citizens and contains a number of directive principles of social policy for the general guidance of the Oireachtas. The Constitution may be amended only by way of referendum put to Irish Citizens resident in the State.

The new Constitution had been approved in a Referendum earlier in the year and it marked the culmination of Eamon De Valera’s attempts to undo the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which he had opposed from day one. De Valera became the first Taoiseach (Prime Minister) and Douglas Hyde the first President of Ireland or Eire as the Free State now wished to be known. The only residue of the Treaty now left was the link to the Crown through the State’s continued and reluctant membership of the British Commonwealth – but that particular bugbear was to fall (ironically enough) to a leader of Fine Gael to accomplish in 1949.

Thursday, 28 December 2017

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28 December 1650: In Galway city Dubhaltach MacFhirbhisigh, one of the last of the great scribes of Ireland, added an index of just under three thousand entries to his masterpiece the Leabhar na nGenealach, or the Book of Genealogies on this day. An index was rare in a Gaelic manuscript and MacFhirbhisigh was probably adapting more modern methods to his enormous work. In its current printed edition it runs to five volumes.

The work is a compilation of Irish genealogical lore relating to the principal Gaelic and Anglo-Norman families of Ireland and covering the period from pre-Christian times to the mid-17th century and collected from a variety of sources. The fact that many of these sources no longer exist adds considerably to the value of Mac Fhirbhisigh's work.

This great work stands comparison with The Annals of the Four Masters and is all the more remarkable for being the work of just one man. Preserved over the centuries it was not printed in full until Mayoman Nollaig Ó Muraíle published his comprehensive edition in five volumes (by De Burca books) in 2004. This is one of Ireland’s greatest Literary/Historical Treasures.

Wednesday, 27 December 2017

27 December 1171 AD: Petrus Ua Mórda [ang: Peter O’Moore) the Bishop of Clonfert/Clúain Fearta in what is now Co Galway, was drowned on this day in the River Shannon close by the seat of his Diocese.

He appears to have been a member of a family from Ui Maine, one of the oldest and largest kingdoms located in Connacht, Ireland. Ua Mórda was abbot of Grellach dá Iach, the first of three sites inhabited by the Cistercians and who finally settled at Boyle Abbey. In around 1150 AD, he became Bishop of Clonfert; styled as Bishop of Cluain-fearta-Brenainn or Bishop of Ui Maine.

Petrus (Ua Mordha), bishop of Ui-Maine of Connacht (otherwise, bishop of Cluain-ferta of [St.] Brenann), a devout monk and authoritative man, was drowned in the Sinand (namely, at Port-da-Chaineg), namely, on the 6th of the Kalends of January [Dec. 27].
Annals of Ulster

Tuesday, 26 December 2017

26 December 1796: Wolfe Tone wrote in his Journal aboard the French Man of War Indomptable the following entry:

December 26th —Last night, at half after six o'clock, in a heavy gale of wind still from the east, we were surprised by the Admiral's frigate running under our quarter, and hailing the Indomptable with orders to cut our cable and put to sea instantly; the frigate then pursued her course, leaving us all in the utmost astonishment. . . . All our hopes are now reduced to get back in safety to Brest, and I believe we will set sail for that port the instant the weather will permit. . . . Notwithstanding all our blunders, it is the dreadful stormy weather and the easterly winds, which have been blowing furiously and without intermission since we made Bantry Bay, that have ruined us.

Thus ended the hopes of Theobald Wolfe Tone and the other Irish revolutionaries to liberate Ireland from England’s rule by enlisting the help of Revolutionary France. Never again was such a major Expedition undertaken by Paris to help the Irish free themselves from Foreign rule.

While Wolfe Tone’s hopes were dashed on this occasion he returned in the wake of the Rising of 1798 but was captured off Donegal. Facing execution he cut his own throat in prison to deprive his captors of the satisfaction of seeing him hanging from a rope.

Monday, 25 December 2017

25 December 1245: The terrible and unusual snow that had been falling in Ireland for the previous few weeks finally ended:

Poisonous snow fell on the night of the festival of Saint Nicholas, [Dec.6]
which took off the heels and toes of those who walked
in it; and this snow did not disappear until Christmas


Annals of Loch Cé

Sunday, 24 December 2017

24 December 1895: The loss of the Dun Laoghaire/Kingstown Lifeboat, Civil Service No. 7 with all hands on this day. 15 men of the RNLI were swept to their deaths when attempting to rescue a boat in difficulties on Christmas Eve. The alarm had been raised earlier that morning. Onlookers on the shoreline had spotted that a Finnish ship of the Russian Mercantile Navy, the Palme, was in distress just outside the harbour entrance. A tremendous Storm was raging at the time and indeed so ferocious were the conditions that this ship had been pushed back up the Irish Sea by the intensity of the winds. The Captain had decided to run for the nearest port and seek shelter. Unfortunately his attempt to gain the harbour was in vain and he had no choice but to try and ride it out at anchor and await less stormy conditions. However his position was a precarious one and the ship was in imminent danger of been swept onto the rocky shoreline nearby.

The alarm was raised and the 15 volunteers of Civil Service No. 7 put out into the terrible seas to endeavour to rescue the crew. Alas within minutes of reaching the stricken vessel their own boat was overturned by a huge wave, and all the men went into the water. The boat, of a modern design, was supposed to right itself but this did not happen. Some of the crew managed to scramble onto the upturned hull but the temperature being so low hypothermia soon seized them. One by one they slid down the side and were swept away to their doom. The sailors on board the Palme, seeing the plight of their would be rescuers attempted to lower their own boat but it was smashed against the hull and they gave up all hope of being rescuers or indeed rescued themselves from their terrible plight.

The second Lifeboat on Station, the Hannah Pickard then put to sea. Pulling hard on the oars her crew attempted to make headway but she too capsized and all the men were thrown into the water. Fortunately for them they were close enough to the shore to swim for it and all were saved. 

Other boats in the vicinity tried without success to close with her but the heavy seas drove them back. After that the Palme was left to her fate as no more could done for her. All that night and on Christmas Day and again that night she stood off shore at the end of a tenuous anchor. The Storm finally abated on the morning of St Stephens Day. Eventually a ship was able to approach and lower a boat that made a number of runs to her and first took off the Capitan’s wife and baby. Then the other 17 members of the crew and the Captain himself were brought ashore. Even the ships cat was rescued. But of the brave sailors lost only their bodies were ever recovered. It was the greatest loss of life ever recorded here in Ireland of the men of the RNLI. 

The men lost were: 

Alexander Williams. Aged 35 married with 6 children. The Coxswain.

Henry Williams . Aged 60 (Father of above) veteran silver medal holder. Ex-coxswains who had two other sons,

George Sanders. Aged 30 married no children.

Francis Saunders. Aged 27 (Brother of above) married with 5 children.

Edward Shannon, Aged 28 married with 4 children

Patrick Power. Aged 22. Single.

Edward Crowe, Aged 30 married no children.

John Baker. Aged 33 married with 3 children (wife very delicate).

Henry Underhill. Aged 32 years just married. No children.

John Bartley, Aged 45 married with two children.

William Dunphy Aged 40 married with 6 children.

Thomas Dunphy. Aged 31 (Brother of above) Married 3 children.

Edward Murphy. Aged 30 married 3 children.

Francis McDonald. Whose son was born to his widow early in 1896.

James Ryan Aged 24 not married.


Saturday, 23 December 2017

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23 December 1958: Dorothy Macardle, historian and playwright died on this day. She was born in Dundalk in 1889. Her mother was Minnie Ross Macardle and her father Thomas Callan Macardle, the chairman of Dundalk’s Macardle Moore brewery. The Macardles were a wealthy Catholic family with a foot in both camps as it were. She was educated at Alexandra College and UCD. She worked as a journalist and publicist during the War of Independence and the Civil War, when she supported the anti-Treaty side and served time in Mountjoy and Kilmainham jails for her activities with Cumann na Ban. She wrote the short but very influential booklet Tragedies of Kerry as the Civil War ended dealing with atrocities carried out by Free State Army personnel in that County. This ‘made her name’ in Republican circles and set the tone of her approach to writing on Irish History.

In 1926 she left Sinn Féin and joined Fianna Fáil, and went with Dev that further progress of the Republican cause was best served through constitutional means. However her main claim to fame is her monumental The Irish Republic which sets out in considerable detail the Republican perspective on the events of 1912-1923 ie The Home Rule Crises; The Easter Rising; The War of Independence and the Civil War.

Macardle worked on The Irish Republic during a critical phase in the development of the modern Irish historical profession. It met with much popular acclaim in Ireland, as well as some misgivings, and brought Macardle widespread recognition when it was published in 1937. However its great strength was that Macardle was an active participant in the events she described and she personally knew many of the men and women who took part in the drive to secure the Country’s Independence from the British. On the other hand it is from this perspective only that she describes those episodes in her narrative.

The Irish Press, the newspaper linked with de Valera and Fianna Fáil, actively promoted the book by publishing extracts as well as a glowing review. The Irish Times review offered measured praise, as did the Times Literary Supplement, which brought the book to the attention of British readers. The most hostile responses in Ireland came from the Irish Independent, the newspaper of Fine Gael supporters and the Catholic Bulletin…

…Although stocks of the book were blown to bits when the Luftwaffe dropped bombs on a warehouse in London during World War II, The Irish Republic, like the phoenix, rose from its own ashes and was reprinted several times, most recently in 2005.

Nadia Clare Smith History Ireland May/June 2007

While Dev gave his Imprimatur to her great work she herself was becoming increasingly disillusioned with the cultural direction of the Irish Free State, a stance that gained in strength with the passing of the Irish Constitution in 1937 – which in her eyes and that of many other women was shaped towards seeing little role for females outside of the family Home.

She changed tack after this and pursued her artistic interests in writing about the occult, and supernatural themes, including ghosts, extra-sensory perception and witchcraft! Her most successful novel, Uneasy Freehold, a haunted-house mystery set in England, was adapted for the screen and released as a film called The Uninvited in 1944 & was quite successful.

After the War she made it up with Dev and turned her focus to World Peace & the United Nations. She wrote Children of Europe in 1949 which was an account of the plight of children during and after the war.

She died in 1958 at the age of 69 of cancer in a hospital in Drogheda Co Louth – her home town. Though she was still somewhat disillusioned with the new Irish State (in particular, regarding its treatment of women), she left the royalties from The Irish Republic to her close friend Eamon De Valera who visited her when she lay dying. Her great work The Irish Republic still remains the best account from the Republican side ever written.

Friday, 22 December 2017

22 December 1691: Patrick Sarsfield and 11,000 Irish soldiers and their families sailed from the City of Cork for Exile in France on this day. Their departure was part of the military terms agreed in the Treaty of Limerick that was signed in October of that year. Article 1 stated that:
 That all persons, without any exceptions, of what quality or condition soever, that are willing to leave the kingdom of Ireland, shall have free liberty to go to any country beyond the seas (England and Scotland excepted) where they think fit, with their families, household-stuff, plate, and jewels.

It was agreed that 50 ships could be used to Transport all those that wished to go abroad. The port of Cork was the decided upon as the place of embarkation and it was to there that General Sarsfield marched his men after departing Limerick with the Honours of War.

Like so many of the men he brought away to France he was never to see his Homeland again. On 29 July 1693 he was severely wounded at the Battle of Landen (or Neerwinden), whilst leading the Irish Brigade against William of Orange. The French Army was commanded by Marshal Luxembourg who drove the British Army from the field of battle. Carried off the battlefield Sarsfield was taken to the town of Huy, about twenty miles away, where he died three days later having at least the satisfaction that his troops had played a part in the Victory over William of Orange. He is buried in St. Martins Church in this city, where a plaque is erected marking the approximate spot of his grave.

Thursday, 21 December 2017

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21 December 1967: The rediscovery of the sunlight in the passage tomb at Newgrange Co Meath on this day. On this morning in the midst of Winter Professor Michael J. O'Kelly stood alone in the passageway and watched as the first rays of sunshine struck the inside of the walls of the chamber at the time of the winter solstice. Also known as midwinter, it is an astronomical phenomenon marking the days with the shortest periods of daylight and the longest nights of the year. The structure was built by ancient Neolithic [New Stone Age] people some 5,200 years ago (3,200 B.C.) which makes it older than Stonehenge and the Great Pyramids of Giza.

While a dominant feature on the landscape today it was buried for centuries and only identified as an ancient site at the end of the 17th century. However a modern scientific excavation just began in the early 1960s led by a team of archaeologists under Professor O’Kelly. He was easily the best qualified man in Ireland to undertake the task having decades of practical experience and a formidable academic record behind him in surveying, architecture and archaeology. Talking to locals he discovered that there was a persistent tradition that at the time of the Winter Solstice that as dawn broke on that day the light of Sun entered the chamber and struck the back of it onto the three spirals carved into the rock face.

The Professor was intrigued by this and by December 1967 he could stand it no longer. He set out from his home in Co Cork and made the long journey up to County Meath to check it out for himself.

Some minutes before sunrise on the 21st of December 1967, Professor O'Kelly stood alone in the darkness of the chamber at Newgrange, wondering what, if anything, would happen. To his amazement, minute by minute, the chamber grew steadily lighter and a beam of sunlight began to enter the passage and to travel inwards, "lighting up everything as it came until the whole chamber – side recesses, floor and roof six metres above the floor – were all clearly illuminated". O'Kelly stood rigid for a while, transfixed by the phenomenon and convinced and fearful in his own imagination that the Dagda, the sun god, who according to the ancient tradition had built the tomb, was about to hurl the roof upon him.
Fortunately the roof remained in place, the sun retreated and he walked from the tomb, the first person to have witnessed the light of the sun penetrate the darkness of the chamber at Newgrange since ancient times.

This re-discovery and the development of the site into a recognisable structure once again brought the magnificence  of the place and that of the other passage tombs Knowth and Dowth at Brú na Bóinne  [Palace or Mansion of the (river) Boyne] to the attention of the World of Archaeology. Today Newgrange is one of Ireland’s top tourist attractions with some 150,000 visitors  per annum. This time of year draws people from around the World who come to take inspiration from the site. Even if they have little chance of entering the chamber at the golden moment or even of seeing anything at all on a dull morning can still be moved by the majesty of the place - and feel a link to our stone age ancestors and the great skills in engineering and astronomy that they surely possessed.

Tuesday, 19 December 2017

20 December 1645: The 2nd ‘Glamorgan Treaty’ was signed in the city of Kilkenny on this day. The agreement was negotiated between the Confederation of Kilkenny and the Earl of Glamorgan. The Earl, as a trusted Englishman of the Catholic Faith, held a Commission from King Charles I [above] to secretly negotiate with the Irish Catholics and secure military backing for the Royal cause in England. He had already in August of this year concluded a secret arrangement with the Confederates by which the Catholics of Ireland were to be exempted from the jurisdiction of the Protestant clergy and were granted possession of all the churches they had seized since the outbreak of the Rising in 1641. In return, the Confederates were to raise an army of 10,000 men to serve the King in England.

However since then the formidable Cardinal Rinuccini had arrived in the Confederate Capital as the Papal Nuncio. He saw the opportunity of winning further concessions and pressed Glamorgan to agree the terms of a deal negotiated in Rome with an agent of Queen Henrietta Maria (King Charles’ wife).

Glamorgan agreed to the new terms as he was desperate to complete his mission and return at the head of an Army to England to serve the King. Under the new terms the King was to undertake never to appoint a Protestant lord-lieutenant in Ireland, Catholic bishops were to be allowed to sit in the Dublin Parliament and a Catholic University was to be established. In return, Glamorgan was to be appointed commander of an advance guard of 3,000 Confederate soldiers to sail immediately for the relief of Chester.

However as it turned out Glamorgan’s Mission to Ireland was a Fiasco as a copy of the Treaty signed in August fell into enemy hands. When the details of what Glamorgan had conceded reached Oxford [King Charles H.Q.] and London [seat of Parliament] a storm of protest was raised. In the meantime the Earl was arrested in Dublin by the Duke of Ormond and imprisoned in the Castle as a Traitor. The King had no choice but to disown him but secretly instructed that he be released from custody. He promptly fled to the Cardinal in Kilkenny but was never trusted with a secret mission again. A somewhat hapless figure he was ruined by the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and even after the Restoration his family never regained their antebellum status.

Rather than strengthen the position of King Charles in England the Treaty further weakened it as it appeared to many in both his own ranks and those of the Parliament forces that he would cut any deal with the Catholics to gain their support - something that was anathema to most of Protestant England. King Charles tried to be different things to different people to win their support - the trouble was the recipients of his attentions had difficulty knowing which King Charles they were dealing with - and this was just another classic example.

Portrait: King Charles I by Anthony van Dyck circa 1638

Monday, 18 December 2017

18 December 1980: The 1st Hunger Strike in Long Kesh dramatically and suddenly ended on this day. The strike had been called in late October as a means of winning Political Status for the Republican prisoners who had been captured during the conflict. Since 1976 anyone convicted before the North’s special courts had been deemed a ‘criminal’ and been treated accordingly. The prisoners so convicted and held in the jails were not prepared to accept this and many went ‘on the blanket’. By late 1980 the situation had reached such a stage that seven men volunteered to go on Hunger Strike to win a set of demands that would in effect give them the status of political prisoners.

These men were:
Tom McFeeley, Brendan Hughes (until then, the OC for protesting prisoners), Raymond McCartney, Leo Green, John Nixon, Tommy McKearney and Sean McKenna. Mairead Farrell, Mairead Nugent and Mary Doyle, all prisoners in Armagh, joined the men in the H-Blocks on 1 December 1980.

On the night of the 18th of that month the British put before the men in Long Kesh a set of proposals that they claimed would allow the Strike to be called off without loss of face and give them the substance of what they wanted. One of the prisoners, Sean McKenna, was in a bad way by this stage and close to going blind. After considering the offer the prisoners decided to accept the assurances of the British Government and end their action.

Tremendous pressure now fell on the shoulders of strike leader Brendan Hughes, who had promised his comrade that he would not let him die. With McKenna rapidly approaching death – after 53 days on hunger strike – Hughes made a unilateral decision to end the protest.
F Stuart Ross, author of Smashing H-Block

They issued a Statement that included the following lines:

In ending our hunger strike, we make it clear that failure by the British Government to act in a responsible manner towards ending the conditions which forced us on to a hunger strike will not only lead to inevitable and continual strife within the H-Blocks, but will show quite clearly the intransigence of the British Government.

Sunday, 17 December 2017

17 December 1803: The famous Wicklow guerrilla leader, Michael Dwyer, surrendered to the British on this day. Since the failure of the Rising in 1798 he had kept up a resistance campaign in the Wicklow Mountains. Despite Dublin Castle putting a price on his head and conducting numerous sweeps of area by the Crown Forces Dwyer and his determined band always managed to evade capture. However the years of hardship in such a barren terrain and the mistreatment of members of his family in retaliation by the British led him to decide to call it a day and he came in of his own accord.

The surrender of Michael Dwyer was the last event of the insurrection of 1798—1803. But, for several years subsequently, the Habeas Corpus Act continued suspended and an insurrection act was in full force. Never, up to the hour of Napoleon's abdication at Fontainebleau, did the spectre of a French invasion of Ireland cease to haunt the mind of England.


By A. M. Sullivan

While his life was spared he was imprisoned in Kilmainham Jail and subject to harsh treatment there. In 1805 he was transported to Botany Bay and imprisoned as a convict. He clashed there with the Governor, Captain Bligh of Bounty fame and was sent by him to Norfolk Island where conditions were diabolical. When Bligh was recalled in 1808 he was able to return to Sydney and was eventually given 100 acres on which to settle and farm. Ironically he became a local Constable and lived on undisturbed. Dwyer died in Sydney on 23 August 1825.

Saturday, 16 December 2017

16 December 1971: General Richard Mulcahy died in Dublin on this day. Richard James Mulcahy was born in Waterford and educated by the Christian Brothers both there, and later in Thurles where his father was postmaster. He joined the post office and was employed initially at Bantry, transferring to the engineering department in Wexford and from there to Dublin. A member of the I. R. B. and the Gaelic League he joined the Irish Volunteers in 1913. He fought with Thomas Ashe in Ashbourne during Easter 1916, was imprisoned at Frongoch, and released in the general amnesty in 1917. Chief of Staff of the IRA, he was elected MP for the Clontarf Division in 1918 and served as Minister for Defence in the First Dáil until April 1919. He played an important role as the senior staff officer in the War of Independence ensuring that the IRA was organised and conducted its affairs as a disciplined force answerable to its officers.
He supported the Treaty and served as Minister for National Defence in the Provisional Government and succeeded Michael Collins as Commander in Chief of the Free State Army after his death. He gave the graveside oration at Michael Collins funeral at Glasnevin Cemetery. He exercised primary responsibility for the conduct of the Civil War campaign against anti-Treaty forces. He pressed for harsh measures against the Republican forces including the execution of men taken in arms. However his ability to balance calculated harsh measures against atrocities and unofficial reprisals carried out at local level was problematic to say the least. While his determination and ruthlessness shortened the War it also prolonged the many years of bitterness that followed.

He resigned from the Cabinet during the army crisis of 1924 but re-entered the Cabinet as Minister for Local Government in June 1927. After the resignation of W.T. Cosgrave in June 1944 Mulcahy was elected leader of Fine Gael. Because of his Civil War legacy he stood aside to allow John A. Costello to form the First and Second Inter-Party Governments and served as Minister for Education in both (1948–51, 1954–57) and as Minister for the Gaeltacht (July–October 1956). He resigned from the leadership of Fine Gael in 1959 and from active politics in 1961.

Friday, 15 December 2017

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15‭ ‬December‭ ‬1899:‭ ‬The Battle of Colenso was fought on this day.‭ ‬The‭ ‬5th Irish Brigade of the British Army under‭ ‬Major General Fitzroy Hart‭ [above] ‬was engaged in action against the Boers and suffered heavy casualties.‭

The battle was fought on the Tugela River in Northern Natal,‭ ‬South Africa.‭ ‬The British were under Sir Redvers Buller with‭ ‬16,000‭ ‬soldiers and the Boers were led by General Botha with about‭ ‬3,000‭ ‬of his doughty men drawn from the Boer farming communities and the‭ ‘‬Burghers‭’ ‬from the towns‭ ‬-‭ ‬most of them first class riflemen.‭ 

To the west of Colenso the river described a loop to the North West before continuing straight.‭ ‬A half mile west of the loop lay Bridle Drift,‭ ‬a river ford.‭ ‬Buller directed the Irish Brigade under Major General Hart to cross the drift and drive the Boers‭ ‬force‭ ‬the‭ ‬passage‭ ‬of‭ ‬the‭ ‬Tugela.

General Hart was ordered to advance the‭ ‬5th Brigade and gain the‭ ‘‬drift‭’ ‬or ford on the river Tugela.‭ ‬Early that morning the force began to move forward but General Hart insisted that his Brigade fight shoulder to shoulder as if on parade in Aldershot.‭ ‬He had the following battalions with which to secure his objective,‭ ‬three of which were Irish:‭ ‬2nd Royal Dublin Fusiliers‭; ‬1st Inniskilling Fusiliers‭; ‬1st Connaught Rangers and one English the‭ ‬1st Border Regiment.‭ ‬The General deployed his Brigade in lines of advance thus:‭

2nd‭ ‬Bn.‭ ‬Dublin‭ ‬Fusiliers,‭ ‬as‭ ‬Covering‭ ‬Battalion to the Front.
1st‭ ‬ Connaught‭ ‬Rangers,‭ ‬First‭ ‬line.
1st‭ ‬Border‭ ‬Regt,‭ ‬Second line.
1st‭ ‬R.‭ ‬Inniskilling‭ ‬Fusiliers,‭ ‬Third line.

Hart had but a local Native Guide and a civilian interpreter to show him the way and it soon became clear that the Guide was as lost as he was.‭ ‬In addition the artillery while in support was too far away for direct instructions and Hart was basically on his own feeling his way forward.‭ ‬No other Brigade came to his support and the‭ ‬500‭ ‬cavalry he had with him had to take the rear until a passage of the river was secured.‭

His machine guns became separated from the rest of the Brigade and thus the Infantry advanced alone.‭ ‬His men spread out into one long line each battalion one behind the other.‭ ‬This was not what the General intended to happen as it extended his front to such an extent that it became impossible to maintain control.

Even though supported at a distance‭ ‬by two field batteries‭ (‬64th and‭ ‬73rd Batteries,‭ ‬R.F.A.‭) ‬they soon ran into a storm of fire directed from across the Tugela.‭ ‬This was made worse as where they intended to cross was a loop in the river and the Boers enfiladed them from three sides.‭

Our burghers as well as our artillery allowed the enemy to advance unmolested to a range of about‭ ‬1,500‭ ‬yards with their guns,‭ ‬and having allowed the infantry to approach to approximately‭ ‬500‭ ‬yards,‭ ‬they suddenly unleashed a heavy fire.‭ ‬The enemy had orders to cross the river at this point,‭ ‬and although they stormed repeatedly,‭ ‬the fire of our burghers and artillery was so well directed and had such good effect that only a captain,‭ ‬two lieutenants and a few men were able to reach the river bank.‭ ‬Here the enemy suffered a tremendous loss in dead and wounded.

General Botha’s Official Report

General Hart described what happened to his men at this moment as follows:

The‭ ‬infantry had‭ ‬advanced‭ ‬only‭ ‬a‭ ‬little‭ ‬way,‭ ‬when‭ ‬a‭ ‬tremendous‭ ‬rifle‭ ‬fire‭ ‬was‭ ‬poured‭ ‬into‭ ‬us‭ ‬from‭ ‬our‭ ‬front,‭ ‬and‭ ‬a‭ ‬considerable rifle‭ ‬fire‭ ‬from‭ ‬our‭ ‬left‭ ‬front.‭ ‬There‭ ‬was no‭ ‬smoke‭ ‬and‭ ‬not a‭ ‬sign‭ ‬of‭ ‬the‭ ‬enemy‭ ‬himself,‭ ‬or‭ ‬even‭ ‬a‭ ‬horse,‭ ‬but‭ ‬the‭ ‬streaks‭ ‬of‭ ‬dust‭ ‬as‭ ‬the‭ ‬Boer‭ ‬bullets‭ ‬showered‭ ‬in,‭ ‬grazing‭ ‬the ground,‭ ‬plainly showed‭ ‬where‭ ‬they‭ ‬were,‭ ‬by‭ ‬a‭ ‬process‭ ‬of‭ ‬interpolation.‭ ‬The‭ ‬infantry lay‭ ‬down‭ ‬flat.‭ ‬Fire was‭ ‬new‭ ‬to‭ ‬them‭…

I‭ ‬could‭ ‬see‭ ‬officers‭ ‬here and‭ ‬there‭ ‬urging on the‭ ‬advance‭;‬ and‭ ‬all‭ ‬this‭ ‬was‭ ‬so‭ ‬far‭ ‬successful‭ ‬that‭ ‬a‭ ‬slow
advance‭ ‬was‭ ‬made.‭ ‬Here and‭ ‬there‭ ‬men‭ ‬with‭ ‬better‭ ‬nerves‭ ‬pushed‭ ‬on.‭ ‬There‭ ‬was‭ ‬no‭ ‬panic,‭ ‬and‭ ‬once‭ ‬when‭ ‬I said to‭ ‬a‭ ‬lot of‭ ‬men‭ ‬who‭ ‬were‭ ‬deaf‭ ‬to‭ ‬my‭ ‬commands‭ ‬to‭ ‬advance‭— 
" If‭ ‬I‭ ‬give‭ ‬you‭ ‬a‭ ‬lead,‭ ‬if‭ ‬your‭ ‬General‭ ‬gives‭ ‬you‭ ‬a‭ ‬lead‭—‬will‭ ‬you‭ ‬come‭ ‬on‭?‬ "
 They‭ ‬answered‭ ‬quite‭ ‬cheerily‭ ‬with‭ ‬their‭ ‬brogues‭ ‬" We‭ ‬will,‭ ‬sir,‭" ‬and‭ ‬up‭ ‬they‭ ‬jumped‭ ‬and‭ ‬forward they‭ ‬went.‭
Time‭ ‬and experience‭ ‬are‭ ‬necessary‭ ‬to‭ ‬make‭ ‬men‭ ‬go‭ ‬well‭ ‬under‭ ‬fire.


Of those men that did reach the Tugela‭ ‬many fell headlong into the river for along the bottom barbed wires had been stretched.‭ ‬Worse still,‭ ‬it was found that instead of being two feet deep,‭ ‬as was expected,‭ ‬it was eight feet‭; ‬for the Boers had erected a dyke across the river a little lower down,‭ ‬and had dammed the water back.

Hart was criticised afterwards for preventing any effort to take cover or move the attack out of the loop towards the correct crossing point at Bridle Drift,‭ ‬keeping his dwindling brigade in the loop for the rest of the day.‭ ‬He accordingly achieved nothing except heavy losses and a damaging blow to his men’s morale.‭ ‬Eventually orders reached him to retire and with some effort this was done under cover of the guns.‭ ‬The Brigade played no further part in the battle.‭ ‬Casualties as reported by Hart amounted to some‭ ‬25‭ ‬officers‭ ‬and‭ ‬528‭ ‬men,‭ ‬total‭ ‬553,‭ ‬killed,‭ ‬wounded‭ ‬and‭ ‬missing.‭

An experienced Officer his conduct this day was such to indicate that bravery and a rigid adherence to orders in the face of well armed and dug in riflemen was not enough and could only lead to disaster.‭ ‬However he was in some respects a victim of circumstance as he had followed his orders to the letter and had acted honourably given the situation he found himself in.‭

lsewhere the battle was also a bloody fiasco for the British as the Boers poured a deadly fire into the advancing ranks and eventually Buller called a Retreat,‭ ‬which was as ineptly handled.‭ ‬The British Army lost‭ ‬1,167‭ ‬men killed,‭ ‬wounded and captured while the Boers lost but a few score men.‭ ‬Over half the casualties were incurred by the Irish Brigade‭!

The British High Command had become used to fighting native armies that were poorly armed and unused to being under fire.‭ ‬The Boers however were Europeans well used to handling guns and the application of marksmanship.‭ ‬That plus their adept use of cover allowed them to dominate the battlefield and put a stop to all attempts by the British to storm their positions.‭ 

Buller was soon relieved of his position and replaced by Anglo-Irish General Lord Roberts whose only son,‭ ‬Lieutenant Freddie Roberts VC,‭ ‬had been killed in the battle trying to rescue the guns‭ – ‬an action in which General Buller himself had put it to him to partake in‭!

Thursday, 14 December 2017

14 December 1831: The Carrickshock Massacre on this day. A party of the Irish Constabulary was ambushed at Carrickshock [carriag-seabhac/‘the hawks rock'] Co Kilkenny and three of the attackers and fourteen Constables were killed in the affray. It happened at the height of the ‘Tithe War’ as catholic farmers and tenants resisted having to pay a ‘tithe’ or tax to the local clergy of the Church of Ireland.

Dr Hans Hamilton, the Rector of Knocktopher in County Kilkenny insisted that it be collected from the locals. He appointed his Land agent James Bunbury to see it done. Bunbury in turn employed one Edmund Butler, a local butcher, to serve these processes to the tenants. The local R.M. (Resident Magistrate) Joseph Green, authorised a Constabulary escort for Butler as he went about his task. At first all went well as Butler made his way house to house serving notices but soon resentment grew and by the third day of his travels hundreds of men had gathered to follow him and impede his progress. Everywhere he went the alarm was raised and people mobilised to stop him.

Things came to head as the procession made its way through a Boreen (a narrow country pathway) that was flanked on both sides by walls. Butler was accompanied by 38 constables under the command of a sub-inspector, Captain James Gibbons but by this stage the crowd had swelled to some two thosuand men. The cry went up ‘We will have Butler or Blood!’ and one young fellow (James Treacy) ran forward and grabbed at Butler. He was brutally baynotted and fatally shot. At this the crowd erupted and a torrent of stones were flung upon the target and his escort, one of which brought down Butler. The Constabulary were then overwhelmed and attacked with mallets and hurleys and stab wounds from pikes and scythes. It was all over in minutes and at the end of it all James Treacy, Patrick Power & Thomas Phelan were dead from amongst the atatckers as well as Butler, Gibbons, and 11 constables who had been killed or mortally wounded, with 14 constables severely injured. A curious note is that of the 38 constables, 24 were Protestants, of whom 9 were killed and 11 wounded, while of the 14 Catholics only 2 were killed and 4 wounded!

A number of men were brought to Trial the following year but at the end of it all no one was ever convicted. Daniel O’Connell defended some of the men and successfully argued that under the circumstances that they could not get a fair trial before packed juries and all the adverse publicity surrounded the events of that day. Dublin Castle realised that any convictions and executions would only inflame and excaberate the situation further and the whole matter was dropped with the collection of Tithes suspended. Eventually in 1838 a compromise was put into practise whereby Landlords would collect the amounts due from their tenants and pass them on in turn and the whole sorry saga stopped. There ended The Tithe War - a period of intense violence in Ireland akin to ‘The Troubles’ of latter years that is now almost forgotten by the general public.

* Image from Relief on the base of the memorial cross at the site of the incident
Courtesy of: By IrishFireside - Flickr: Carrickshock Monument, CC BY 2.0,

Wednesday, 13 December 2017

13 December 1867: The Clerkenwell Explosion. In an abortive attempt to free the Fenian Leader Richard O’Sullivan Burke from Clerkenwell Prison in London a huge bomb was placed at the foot of the prison wall. This detonated with such devastating force that it brought down a large chunk of it but without result. Unfortunately the amount of explosives was so great that it blew down a tenement block across the road and killed 12 of its inhabitants while injuring many more.
Richard Burke was at the time a political convict confined in Clerkenwell Prison, London, and the design was formed by Fenian sympathizers in the metropolis to effect his release by making a breach in the outer wall of the prison by means of gunpowder at an hour of the day when he was supposed to be exercising in the yard inside of this wall; so as he might "bolt" directly after an aperture had been effected by the explosion. In pursuance of this plan, a barrel of gunpowder was placed against the wall on the 13th of December, 1867, and at the appointed hour was exploded by means of a fuse. The effect was fearful: one hundred and fifty feet of the wall was blown in, and a dozen tenement houses oh the opposite side of the street were laid in ruins. There were twelve persons killed, and more than one hundred wounded in these houses. The report of the explosion was heard all over the metropolis, and brought crowds to the scene of the disaster. Utter ignorance of the nature and potency of explosives, in the minds of some man or men of the labouring class, who had executed this reckless business, is assigned as the true cause of this calamity.

By A. M. Sullivan

The Times of London thundered:
Let there be no more clemency for Fenianism, which is a mixture of treason and assassination. 

Even Karl Marx was driven to comment:
“The London masses, who have shown great sympathy towards Ireland, will be made wild and driven into the arms of a reactionary government. One cannot expect the London proletarians to allow themselves to be blown up in honour of Fenian emissaries.”

As it turned out the object of the rescue, U.S. Civil War veteran Colonel Richard O’Sullivan Burke remained securely inside. He was eventually released by the British in 1872 after feigning insanity and made his way back to the USA where he joined Clan na Gael and continued his efforts on behalf of the Fenians. He lived on until 1922 when he died at the ripe old age of 84!

Tuesday, 12 December 2017

11/12 December 1956: ‘The Border Campaign’ or 'Operation Harvest' began on this day. The IRA under its Chief of Staff Sean Cronin carried out a series of attacks on Crown Forces personnel and installations in the Border areas of the Six Counties. A BBC relay transmitter was bombed in Derry, a courthouse was burned in Magherafelt, as was a B-Specials post near Newry and a half built Army barracks at Enniskillen was blown up. A raid on Gough barracks in Armagh was beaten off after a brief exchange of fire.

That day the IRA issued the following statement:

Spearheaded by Ireland’s freedom fighters, our people have carried the fight to the enemy…Out of this national liberation struggle a new Ireland will emerge, upright and free. In that new Ireland, we shall build a country fit for all our people to live in. That then is our aim: an independent, united, democratic Irish Republic. For this we shall fight until the invader is driven from our soil and victory is ours.

The campaign after an initial surge of activity was to be marked by a number of intermittent attacks on the British in the North that continued until 1962. But without a certain level of popular support on both sides of the Border it was obvious that further resistance was futile and the IRA called off their campaign and dumped arms. It was deliberately kept to the Border areas as it was felt to attempt actions in Belfast etc would only inflame sectarian tensions.

The IRA's Border Campaign was an ambitious plan to wage a guerrilla war in the North. In hindsight, it was an abject failure. But to many in the Republican Movement any action was better than no action.

'Operation Harvest, the codename for the IRA's border campaign of the 1950s, was an ambitious plan to wage a guerrilla war in the North. The IRA used tactics adopted by flying columns that had been successful during the War of Independence in a bid to make Northern Ireland ungovernable and force a British withdrawal. In hindsight, it was an abject failure. They received little or no support from the nationalist population in the North. Most volunteers were from the South with little knowledge of the North. Governments north and south of the border introduced internment and the campaign was almost stillborn.'
Soldiers of Folly: The IRA Border Campaign 1956-1962

Monday, 11 December 2017

11 December 1920: The burning of Cork on this day. After an IRA attack on a lorry load of RIC Auxiliaries at Dillons Cross in which one of them was killed members of the Crown Forces went on a rampage in Cork City Centre. Buildings were set alight and many were gutted by fire. Two men who were members of the Cork IRA, Con and Jer Delaney were shot dead in their own home. British forces deliberately set fire to several blocks of buildings along the east and south sides of Saint Patrick’s Street during the hours of darkness and the following morning. The City Hall and the Carnegie Library were also completely destroyed by fire. The loss of the stock of the library and of the records in Cork City Hall was a huge blow to future historians.

Florrie O'Donoghue described the scene in Cork on the morning of the 12th:

Many familiar landmarks were gone forever – where whole buildings had collapsed here and there a solitary wall leaned at some crazy angle from its foundation. The streets ran with sooty water, the footpaths were strewn with broken glass and debris, ruins smoked and smouldered and over everything was the all- pervasive smell of burning.

The Chief Secretary for Ireland, Sir Hamar Greenwood, immediately denied that Crown forces were responsible for the conflagration. However subsequent local inquiries carried out by reputable bodies established that members of the Crown Forces were indeed culpable for the widespread destruction. Afterwards, some Auxiliaries took to wearing piece of half-burnt cork in their hats. But their black humour could not disguise the fact that these actions further undermined their already weakening authority and showed the World that Britain could not control her own Forces on the streets of a City that it claimed was part of their Empire.